Textile basics

First, textile fiber

1. Definition: Fiber is a natural or synthetic filamentous material, and textile fiber refers to the fiber used for woven fabric.

2, textile fiber characteristics: textile fiber has a certain length, fineness, elasticity, strength and other good physical properties. It also has good chemical stability. For example, natural fibers such as cotton, wool, silk and hemp are ideal textile fibers.

3. Classification of textile fibers: natural fibers and chemical fibers.

1 Natural fibers include plant fibers, animal fibers, and mineral fibers.

A plant fiber such as: cotton, hemp, fruit fiber.

B Animal fibers such as: wool, hair-free, silk.

C Mineral fiber such as: asbestos.

2 chemical fibers include recycled fibers, synthetic fibers and inorganic fibers.

A recycled fiber such as: viscose fiber, acetate fiber.

B Synthetic fiber such as: nylon, polyester, acrylic, spandex, vinylon, polypropylene, etc.

C Inorganic fibers such as glass fibers, metal fibers, and the like.

4. Textile properties of common textile fibers:

1 Wool: moisture absorption, elasticity, good performance, not resistant to insects, acid and metal-binding dyes.

2 Silk: moisture absorption, breathability, gloss and good performance, suitable for acid and direct dyes.

3 Cotton: Breathable, hygroscopic, good to take, resistant to insects, suitable for direct reduction of azo, alkaline medium, vulcanization, reactive dyes.

4 Viscose fiber: Hygroscopicity, good gas permeability, bright color, wide source of raw materials, low cost, close to natural fiber, suitable for dyes and cotton.

5 Polyester: fabric, good, cool, good shape retention, wear resistance, dimensional stability, easy to wash and dry, suitable for disperse dyes, diazo disperse dyes, soluble vat dyes.

6 Nylon: It has excellent abrasion resistance, poor gas permeability, suitable for acid dyes and scattered dyes.

7 Acrylic: good fluffiness, fur, suitable for disperse dyes, cationic dyes.

Second, the identification of fiber

1, identification method:

1 Identification methods include hand, visual, combustion, microscopy, dissolution, drug coloring, and infrared spectroscopy. In the actual identification, it is often necessary to use a variety of methods, comprehensive analysis and research to arrive at the results.

2 The general identification steps are as follows:

A. First, the natural and chemical fibers are identified by combustion.

B. If it is a natural fiber, microscopic observation is used to identify various plant fibers and animal fibers. If it is a chemical fiber, the differences in melting point, specific gravity, refractive index, and solubility of the fiber are distinguished one by one.

C. When identifying mixed fibers and blended yarns, it is generally confirmed by microscopic observation that several fibers are contained therein, and then identified one by one by an appropriate method.

D. For dyed or finished fibers, it is generally necessary to carry out dye stripping or other appropriate pretreatment to ensure reliable identification results.

2. Combustion properties of common fibers:



The near-flame phenomenon of the fiber is smoky after being separated from the flame in the flame.

Cotton near flame, burning, burning, afterburning, afterburning, paper, ash, soft, black ash

The hair melts away from the flame and burns. It is difficult to continue burning. The self-extinguishing odor is easy to break and fluffy black.

Silk melted from the flame, the sound of the wire is difficult to continue burning, self-extinguishing, the taste is fragile, fluffy and black.

Polyester near flame melting, dripping, foaming, burning, weak fragrance, hard round black hazel

Acrylic melting near the flame, burning and burning, burning, splashing, weak fragrance, hard round irregularity or bead




3, fiber calculation method

1 fixed length system:

A. Turks: The weight of a 1000 m length yarn at a given moisture regain rate is called a special number.

Formula: TEX=(G/L)×1000

Where: G is the weight of the yarn (grams), and L is the length of the yarn (meters)

B. Denier: The weight of a 9000 meter long wire at a given moisture regain rate is called the denier.

Formula: NTEX=(G/L)×9000

Where: G is the weight of the wire (g), L is the length of the wire (m)

2 fixed weight system:

A. Male count (public branch): The length of the meter in 1 gram of yarn (silk).

Formula: NM(N)=L/G

Where: 1 is the length of the yarn (wire) (meter), and G is the weight of the yarn (wire) (g)

B. British count (British): The number of 840 yards of a pound of yarn.

Formula: NE(S)=L/(G×840)

Where: L is the length (code) of the yarn (wire) and G is the weight (in pounds) of the yarn (wire).

4. Common raw materials for bedding selection

1 Pure cotton yarn: 36TEX (16S), 28TEX (21S), 18×2TEX32S/2) 15TEX 40S), 14×2TEX (42S/2), 10×2TEX (60S/2)

2 Polyester cotton yarn: 20TEX (30XS), 15TEX (40S), 13TEX (4/S)

Third, the fabric organization

1. Definition: The textile is made up of two yarns of two systems perpendicular to each other on the loom, which are interwoven according to a certain law, that is, the latitude and longitude lines rise and fall according to a certain regularity, so that the surface of the fabric forms a certain pattern and pattern. The tissue is called a fabric tissue.

2, fabric tissue classification:

1 Original organization: It is the simplest fabric organization, also known as the basic organization. It includes plain weave, twill weave and satin weave.

2 Small pattern organization: It is formed by the combination of the above three basic organizational changes. Such as mountain-shaped twill, sharp twill.

3 Complex organization: It also includes double organization (multi-woven into terry cloth, cotton velvet blanket, etc.), raised tissue (such as corduroy cloth), towel tissue (towel fabric), double layer tissue (towel fabric) and leno weave.

4 large pattern organization: also known as the long flower organization, multi-weaving flowers, birds, fish, birds and beasts and other beautiful patterns.

5 Satin texture: The surface of the cloth is smooth but not strong, easy to scratch, and easy to fluff.

3. Density of fabric: Density refers to the number of warp and weft yarns per unit length of the finished blank, which is usually expressed by the number of yarns in 10 square centimeters or 1 square inch. Common density of bedding fabric: 30S yarn 78*65, 78*54, 20S yarn 60*60, 40S yarn 90*90, 110*80, 133*72, 28S yarn 70*60, unit: root / 1 inch.

4, the moisture regain of the fabric, the official weight.

1 moisture regain rate = (wet weight - dry weight) / dry weight × 100%

The official regain rate: 8.5% cotton yarn, 8% cotton cloth, polyester/cotton yarn 65/35 cloth 3.06%, polyester

Cotton 50/50, cloth 4.2%

2 Public weight: The weight of the fabric at the specified moisture regain rate is the nominal weight.

Fourth, textile classification:

1. According to the use, it can be divided into three categories: clothing textiles, decorative textiles and industrial products;

1 Clothing textiles include all kinds of textile fabrics for making garments, as well as various textile accessories such as sewing threads, elastic bands, collar linings, and linings, as well as knitted garments, gloves, socks, and the like.

2 Decorative textiles have more outstanding characteristics than other textiles in terms of variety structure, texture pattern and color matching, and can also be said to be a craft art. Can be divided into indoor products, bedding and outdoor products, including household cloth and restaurant bath room supplies, such as: carpets, sofa sets, chairs, tapestries, stickers, elephant covers, textiles, curtains, towels, tea towels, tablecloths, Handkerchiefs, etc.; bedding includes bedspreads, sheets, quilts, quilt covers, blankets, towels, pillow cores, cores, pillowcases, etc. Outdoor items include artificial turf and the like.

3 Industrial textiles have a wide range of uses and many varieties. Commonly used are tarpaulin, gun coat, filter cloth, screen mesh, roadbed cloth and so on.

2. According to different production methods, it is divided into six categories: line, belt, rope, woven fabric and woven fabric.

1 line: textile fiber is spun by spinning, and more than two yarns are combined;

2 belt type: narrow or tubular fabric, called belt type;

3 ropes: multiple strands twisted into a rope;

4 woven fabric: a fabric woven by warp and weft intersection is called woven fabric;

5 Knitted fabrics: fabrics in which the yarns are looped together and directly formed into a knitted fabric;

6 Non-woven fabric: A sheet textile formed by fiber processing without traditional textile technology, called a non-woven fabric.

5. Warp or weft of fabric

Each fabric has a length and a width. The length parallel to the fabric edge is called the length of the fabric, and the length of the fabric is the radial direction of the fabric; the length perpendicular to the fabric edge is called the width of the fabric, and the direction of the width is the weft of the fabric. to. In the case of weaving, the yarn for the radial direction is a warp yarn, and the yarn for the weft direction is called a weft yarn.

Sixth, the shrinkage of fabric

1, the shrinkage rate of the fabric

The shrinkage of the fabric refers to the percentage of fabric shrinkage after washing or immersion in the fabric. In general, the fabric with the largest shrinkage rate is synthetic fiber and its mixed textiles, followed by wool, hemp fabric, cotton fabric centered, shrinking water, and the largest is viscose fiber, rayon, artificial wool fabric.

2. The factors that cause the fabric to shrink:

1 The raw materials of the fabric are different and the shrinkage rate is different. In general, a fiber having a large hygroscopicity expands after immersion in water, has an increased diameter, a shortened length, and a large shrinkage rate. If the viscose fiber has a water absorption rate as high as 13%, and the synthetic fiber fabric has poor hygroscopicity, the shrinkage rate is small.

2 The density of the fabric is different, and the shrinkage rate is also different. If the latitude and longitude density are similar, the warp and weft shrinkage rate is also close. The fabric with high density has a large shrinkage in the warp direction. On the contrary, the weft density is larger than that of the dense fabric, and the weft shrinkage is also large.

3 The fabric yarns are different in thickness and the shrinkage rate is also different. The shrinkage rate of the coarse yarn is large, and the shrinkage of the fine fabric is small.

4 The fabric production process is different, and the shrinkage rate is also different. Generally, in the weaving and dyeing process of the fabric, the fiber is stretched a plurality of times, the processing time is long, and the shrinkage rate of the fabric with a large applied tension is large, and vice versa.

Seven, how to identify the fabric:

The feel of the fabric is an important part of the quality of the fabric used to identify the fabric. Specifically, the feeling of touching the fabric by hand is psychologically responsive. Because of the different varieties of fabrics, the quality is also different, and the feel of the fabric is quite different. The feel has the following aspects:

1 fabric body is crisp and slack; 2 fabric surface is smooth and rough; 3 fabric soft and hard; 4 fabric thin and thick; 5 fabric cold and warm; 6 fabric is irritating to the skin and less pungent feel. For example: the hand touches the silk textile with a cool feeling; the pure wool fabric has a warm feeling; the fine and smooth hand-made cotton fabric is mostly made of high-count yarn; the rough texture is mostly low-yarn fabric.

In addition, people can also use the role of force, stretching by hand, scratching and other actions, and then through the observation of the eye, the feeling of the hand, can judge the elasticity, strength, crease resistance and fiber type of the fabric. But in general, the feel is the most important means of buying fabrics and clothing.

Eight, cotton woven fabric

1. Definition: The cotton woven fabric is made of cotton as a raw material, which is woven by weaving machine, which is made up of warp and weft yarns.

2, cotton fabric is divided into:

1 natural white cloth: ordinary cloth, fine cloth, coarse cloth, canvas, twill grey cloth, primary color cloth.

2 color cloth: there are vulcanized blue cloth, vulcanized ink cloth, Shilin blue cloth, Shilin gray cloth, color poplin, various colors, and various colors.

3 Flower cloth: It is a cloth printed with various colors and patterns. Such as: plain print, printed twill, printed enamel, printed tribute.

4-color woven fabric: It is a fabric that is dyed by yarn or thread, and then woven on the machine, such as woven cloth, quilt cloth, flannel, thread, decorative cloth, and the like.

3, the characteristics of cotton fabric:

1 Hygroscopicity: Cotton fiber has good hygroscopicity. Under normal conditions, the fiber can absorb water into the surrounding atmosphere. Its moisture content is 8-10%, so it contacts human skin and makes people feel soft. Not stiff. If the humidity of the cotton cloth increases and the ambient temperature is high, the water content in the fiber will all evaporate and disperse, so that the fabric maintains a water balance state, which makes people feel comfortable.

2 Moisture retention: Because cotton fiber is a poor conductor of heat and electricity, the heat transfer coefficient is extremely low, and because cotton fiber itself has porosity and high elasticity, a large amount of air can be accumulated between fibers, and air is a poor conductor of heat and electricity. Therefore, pure cotton fiber textiles have good moisture retention, and wearing cotton fabrics makes people feel warm.

3 Heat resistance: The cotton fabric has good heat resistance. When it is below 110 °C, it will only cause the water on the fabric to evaporate without damaging the fiber. Therefore, the cotton fabric is worn at normal temperature, and the fabric is not washed or printed. The effect is thus improved on the washability and durability of the cotton fabric.

4 Alkali resistance: cotton fiber has greater resistance to alkali. Cotton fiber does not break in alkali solution. This property is good for washing after washing, disinfecting impurities, and also for cotton textiles. Dyeing, printing and various processing to produce more new varieties of cotton.

5 Hygiene: Cotton fiber is a natural fiber, its main component is cellulose, and a small amount of waxy substances and nitrogen and pectin. The cotton fabric has been inspected and practiced in many aspects. The fabric is in contact with the skin without any stimulation, and has no negative effect. It is beneficial to the human body for a long time and has good sanitary performance.

Nine, man-made fiber fabric (chemical fiber)

1. Definition: Chemical fiber is a general term for textile fibers obtained by chemical processing using natural polymer materials or synthetic polymer materials.

2. Classification (according to raw materials and production methods):

1 Man-made fiber: It is the largest variety of chemical fiber. It is made of natural high molecular substances such as wood, bagasse, reed, soybean, and cheese, which are made of cellulose or protein, and chemically and mechanically processed. For example: artificial cotton, rayon, artificial hair, tiger kapok, rich cotton.

2 Synthetic fiber: Synthetic fiber is a large class of chemical fiber, which is a by-product of the petrochemical industry and the coking industry. For example: polyester, nylon, rayon, vinylon, polypropylene, chlorin, etc. are all synthetic fibers.

Ten, blended fabric:

The blended chemical fiber fabric is a textile product of chemical fiber and other cotton wool, silk, hemp and other natural fiber mixed spinning. For example: polyester cotton cloth, polyester hair huada and so on.

11. Key points for washing, ironing, collecting and keeping of fabric products:

1, the key parts of clothing should pay attention to the shape, such as shoulders, collars, cuffs, etc., especially the hard collar finished by resin, must be brushed.

2, with a typical style of fabric, should pay attention to protect its unique appearance of the inner compartment, such as lamp core, velveteen and so on. When twisting, put the velvet bread inside, and pull it off when drying, to avoid the deformation of the suede. For jacquard fabrics, do not use a hard brush to scrub hard to prevent yarn breakage.

3, cotton fabrics have good physical and chemical properties, however, it is not suitable to soak in the washing liquid for too long, the exposure time should not be too long, to prevent color damage.

4. The cotton fabric is easy to float and float. When washing, it should prevent cross-dyeing and color matching, and affect the appearance of the fabric.

The upscale faux fox fur and Knitting Wool products reach the domestic and international high level. Products have been exported to the United States, Australia, Japan, Russia and Vietnam. In addition, according to the report from international accredited testing institutions, the test of formaldehyde in some products is ND level. The company receives high praise from the international specialists.


In the last century, the invention of faux fur advanced human civilization. Faux fur products, which look very similar to the real animal fur, could be produced and no harm to animals. Faux fur products are not only warm, easy care and diverse, but also greatly contribute to protecting animals and ecology for human beings.
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